This is the official question paper of Artificial Intelligence Paper of B.Sc. (Hons.) Computer Science Course at the University of Delhi.

Question 1 is compulsory.

Attempt any four questions from question 2 to question 8.

Part of a question must be answered together.

Some symbols may not be visible on mobile devices. Hence we recommend that you use a desktop to view the solutions to the questions.

#### Question 1 (a): Describe the following terms: (a) Heuristic Function (b) Software Agent

#### Question 1 (b): Write a context-free grammar that can accept the sentence: "Ram hit the ball".

#### Question 1 (c): In the following two-ply game tree, the terminal nodes show the utility values computed by the utility function. Use the Minimax algorithm to compute the utility values for other nodes in the given game tree.

#### Question 1 (d): Find whether the following set is unifiable or not. If unifiable, find the most general unifier(m.g.u.).

#### w = {PARENTS(x, FATHER(x), MOTHER(bill)), PARENTS(bill, FATHER(bill), y)}

#### Question 1 (e): Express the following sentence as conceptual dependency structure: "Sohan gave Tina a box of chocolate"

#### Question 1 (f): Write the conceptual graph and FOPL representation for the following sentence: "Every motorbike has a handle"

#### Question 1 (g): Consider that append(L1, L2, L3) is a function in Prolog, in which list L1 is contacted with L2 and the result is stored in L3. What would be the output of the following statement in Prolog?

#### ? - append([2,3,4],L,[2,3,4,a,b])

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#### Question 1 (h): Find the meaning of the statement:

#### (~P ∨ Q) & R → S ∨ (~R & Q)

#### for the interpretation: P is true, Q is false, R is true, S is true.

#### Question 1 (i): Determine whether the following sentence is satisfiable, contradictory or valid:

#### P → Q → ~P

#### Question 1 (j): Why should the heuristic function of A* algorithm always underestimate? Give reason, example.

#### Question 1 (k): What is non-monotonic reasoning? Give an example.

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#### Question 1 (l): Prove that if A and B are independent events, P(A|B) = P(A). (Note that A and B are independent if and only if P(A&B) = P(A)P(B))

#### Question 2 (a): Differentiate between partially observable and fully observable task environment of an agent. Give an example of each.

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#### Question 2 (b): Create a frame network for terrestrial motor vehicles (cars, trucks, motorcycles) and give one complete frame in detail for cars which includes the slots for the main component parts, their attributes, and relations between parts.

#### Question 3 (a): What is closed world assumption? Give an example.

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#### Question 3 (b): Define Modus Popens Rule. Elaborate using an example.

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#### Question 3 (c): Given formula S1 and S2 below, show Q(a) is a logical consequence of the two.

#### S1: ∀x(P(x)→Q(x)) and S2: P(a)

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#### Question 4 (a): Create a script for shopping in a supermarket.

#### Question 4 (b): Joint Probability P(x1,x2,x3,...,x7) by inspection as a product of chain conditional probabilities is:

#### P(x1,x2,x3,...,x7) = P(x7 | x3) P(x6 | x5) P(x5 | x2 | x3) P(x4 | x1 x2) P(x4 | x1 x2) P(x3) P(x2 | x1) P(x1)

#### Draw a Bayesian belief network for the same.

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#### Question 5 (a): Write a program in Prolog to compute the sum of elements of a list.

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#### Question 5 (b): What are alpha and beta cutoffs? How alpha-beta pruning is used to improve the efficiency of minimax procedure?

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#### Question 5 (b): What is a horn clause? Give an example.

#### Question 6 (a): Compare and contrast Best-first search and Hill Climbing search. You can use example.

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#### Question 6 (b): What is a recursive transition network (RTN)? Give an example.

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#### Question 6 (c): Give two limitations of propositional logic.

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#### Question 7 (a): Consider the following axioms:

#### January

#### Clouds

#### Cold & Precipitation → Snow

#### January → Cold

#### Clouds → Precipitation

#### Convert them into clausal form and prove the truth of "Snow" using resolution.

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#### Question 7 (b): Translate the statements A1 through A4 into clausal form. Show that the predicate supports(book,cup) is true using resolution.

#### S → NP VP

#### NP → N

#### NP → DET N

#### VP → V NP

#### VP → V PP

#### VP → V NP PP

#### PP → PREP NP

#### DET → ART ADJ

#### DET → ART

#### N → man | dog | house

#### V → locked

#### ART → the | a

#### ADJ → cruel

#### PREP → in

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#### Question 8 (a): Solve the following crypt arithmetic problem using constraint satisfaction.

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#### Question 8 (b): Describe the limitations of hill climbing.

#### Question 8 (c): Define PEAS for a vacuum cleaner agent.

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END OF PAPER

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