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Write the conceptual graph and FOPL representation for the following sentence: "Every motorbike has a handle"

In artificial intelligence (AI), a conceptual graph (CG) is a formalism for representing knowledge in a structured and graph-based way. It is a type of semantic network that captures the relationships between concepts through nodes and edges. Conceptual graphs were introduced by John F. Sowa in the late 1970s as a way to represent the meaning of natural language expressions in a form that could be used for automated reasoning and knowledge processing.

A conceptual graph is composed of nodes and edges that form a bipartite graph:

  • Concept Nodes (C): Denoted by rectangles. Represents entities.

  • Relation Nodes (R): Denoted by circles. Represents abstract concepts.

Each edge in the graph connects a concept node to a relation node, and each relation node is connected to one or more concept nodes.

The first step is to find the concept nodes and relation nodes.

Concept Nodes:

  • [Motorbike] represents the concept of a motorbike.

  • [Handle] representing the concept of a handle.

Relation Node:

  • (Has) representing the relationship between the motorbike and the handle.

We can also write it as:

∀x (x:Motorbike) → ∃y (y:Handle)

[ (x) --(Has)--> (y) ]

The same can be represented in First Order Predicate Logic as:

∀x : Motorbike(x)→∃y : Handle(y)∧Has(x,y)

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